Laws of Sanctification of the Moon by Rambam

[Vilno] Rambam. Mishne Torah. Widow and Brothers Romm.

[Rambam LaAm] Rambam. Mishne Torah. Rambam LaAm.

[Eshkol] Rambam. Mishne Torah. Eshkol. 1987.

[Kapach] Rambam. Mishne Torah. Rabbi. Kapach.

[Frenkel] Rambam. Mishne Torah. Rabbi. Frenkel.

[Bluming] Rambam. Mishne Torah. Rambam HaAruch. Rabbi. Y Bluming. 2005.

[Hazak] Rambam. Mishne Torah. HaSholem. 2010.

[Yale] Rambam. Solomon Gandz. Julian Obermann. Mishne Torah. Code of Maimonides, Book 3, Treatise 8: Sanctification of the New Moon (Yale Judaica Series, Vol. 11). Yale. 1967.

[Touger] Rambam. Mishne Torah. Rabbi. Touger.

[HazonIsh] Hazon Ish.

Jewish Writings on Calendar

[Losh] Sefer HaTchunah LeMatchil. Yosef Yitzchok Losh. 1988.

[Keller] Tchunat HaShamaim. Yosef Yitzchok Keller. 1988.

[Glitzenshtein] Kidush HaChodesh LeHaRambam. Menachem Mendel Glitzenshtein. 1993.

[Tzikuni] הזון שמים (Hazon Shamaim). Eitan Tzikuni. 2001.

Hazon Ish and the sine tables.

Greeks on Astronomy

[Neugebauer] The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. Otto Neugebauer. 2nd. Dover Publications. 1969.

Astronomy and History Selected Essays. Otto Neugebauer. Springer. August 8, 1983.

[Crowe] Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution. Michael J. Crowe. 2nd. Dover Publications. 2001.

[Evans] The History & Practice of Ancient Astronomy. James Evans. Oxford University Press. 1998.

[Thurston] Early Astronomy. Hugh Thurston. Springer Verlag. 1996.

[Almagest] Ptolemy's Almagest. G. J. Toomer. Princeton University Press. 1998.

[Campanus] Campanus of Novara & Medieval Planetary Theory. G. J. Toomer, Jr and Francis S. Benjamin. University of Wisconsin Press. 1972.

Ancient Planetary Model Animations.

A Modern Almagest: An updated version of Ptolemy's Almagest.

Summary of Ptolemaic Astronomy.

Contemporary Models

[Meeus] Astronomical Algorithms. Jean Meeus. 2nd. Willmann-Bell. 1998.

[Montenbruck] Astronomy on the Personal Computer. Oliver Montenbruck and Thomas Pfleger. 4th. Springer Verlag. 2000.

[Dershowitz] Calendrical Calculations. Nachum Dershowitz and Edward M. Reingold. 3rd. Cambridge University Press. 2008.

[Dermott] Solar System Dynamics. S. F. Dermott and Carl D. Murray. Cambridge University Press. 2000.

How to compute planetary positions.

Sky View.

Israeli New Moon Society.


NOAA Solar Calculator.

Naval Oceanography Portal.



On Jewish Calendar

Understanding the Jewish Calendar. Nathan Bushwick. Moznaim. February 1, 1989.

The Hebrew Calendar. Dr. Irv Bromberg. University of Toronto, Canada.

[Feldman] W. M. Feldman. Rabbinical Mathematics and Astronomy. Judaic Studies Library; No. Shp4. Intellectbooks. January 1, 1931. 3.



Remy Landau. Hebrew Calendar Science and Myths.

Sacha Stern. Calendar and Community: A History of the Jewish Calendar, 2nd Century BCE to 10th Century CE.

A primitive rabbinic calendar text from the Cairo Genizah. Sacha Stern.

The Reality of Epicycles and Eccentrics Denied.